Umatilla County, Oregon History
Umatilla is one of the north counties of Oregon, Klickitat and Walla Walla counties in Washington Territory being separated from it only by the Columbia River and 46th parallel. The summit ridge of the Blue mountains marks the line of division between it and the north east county of the State, known as Union; the bordering counties to the south and west being Grant and Wasco. Its greatest length is about 140 miles from north east to south west; transversely it is 80; and includes within its limits 3,225,600 acres, or 5,040 square miles. Much of this is grain land of the fines quality, while the balance is divided between timbered mountains, large tracts valuable for grazing, and considerable towards the river that is practically valueless without irrigation. Acres by the hundreds of thousands, as fine for agricultural purposes as a reasonable man could wish, lie along the western base of the Blue Mountains, whose characteristics are elsewhere described in this work. Much of it is yet open to occupation, and unrivaled opportunities are here offered for the settler to make a home where civilization and the locomotive have preceded him. The Umatilla. Indian reservation contains thousands of these valuable acres.
In 1876 N. A. Cornoyer enumerated the Indians as follows: Walla Walla, 140; Cayuse, 344; Umatilla, 145; Total, 629. Indians not on the reservation: Walla Walla, 95; Umatilla , 130 had 1,500 acres under cultivation, 8,000 horses and 2,000 cattle. material change since then.
Umatilla County History